Aniol (2012), Marana (2010) and Aramex (2014) aptly noted culture as a characteristic of a peoples lifestyle in terms of the attitudes, believes, physical presentation, human practices and general conceptions about life. This also refers to people as a human race, section of the human population, or people in light of their social-economic affiliations. Nations, continents, organizations, companies, ethnic communities, and families have cultures that define their existence. Aniol (2012) and Marana (2010) hold the view that cultures define the civilizations of a people. The evolution process of cultures is defined in terms of transition from one form of culture to another form of culture. Culture evolution is also viewed as transition of culture from one generation to generation. Goucher, LeGuin and Walton (1998) added that culture transition over time had systematic patterns. The patterns can be determined in terms of distinct cultural practices in different categories of populations. The culture evolution process is subject of both the natural and social forces. Culture transition may occur consciously or without intentionally. This means that culture can be self-sustained or sustained by the human decisions. It is manifested in beliefs, language, values, and technology (Goucher, LeGuin and Walton, 1998; Aniol, 2012).
Aramex (2014) and Marana (2010) observed that World cultures defined in terms of civilizations date many years back, and the exact dating of some cultures is highly contested. This is because of the distinctive and continuous characterization of culture transition. The ancient mesoptan culture is believed to have existed between 3900 BC and 700BC, the ancient Egyptian civilization is thought to have prevailed in 3100BC through 300BC, ancient china existed in 1900BC and 300BC. The ancient Greek civilization is believed to have occurred 1000BC and 200BC, and the Roman civilization is believed to have occurred between 900BC through the first century. The cultures that followed the roman civilizations were mainly determined by technology as means of economic and social endeavors. Civilizations are broadly categorized as ancient, medieval and modern, however, specific regions and peoples embraced different variations of these civilizations (Aramex, 2014; Marana, 2010; Goucher, LeGuin & Walton, 1998; Aniol, 2012).
The study of systematic occurrences of the civilization is mainly characterized by the cultural aspects. Aramex (2014), Goucher, LeGuin and Walton (1998), and Marana (2010) held the view that anthropology, literature and history determine the understanding of the development of the world cultures. For instance, in the study of civilization trends in history Showalter (2010) demonstrates how a hypothetical character called Ophelia in the Hamlet has been acted in theatres across the world. her characterization stemming from the civilization at the time Shakespeare wrote the drama can be found in the modern theatres and indeed the real life. Characters in the modern theatre embody the transcendental figure of Ophelia and whether the artistic presentation of Shakespeare was based on his environmental theme or mind creation, the existence of such character and themes are real (Showalter, 2010).
It is not about the literary art in the play or the character or the settings of the themes, it is about synthesis of the literature and juxtaposing the results with the actual events, themes, and characters in different times of history. Shepherd and Wallis (2004) and Marana (2010) systemize how a careful mapping of literature and the events in different historical times generate an authentic view of the history of civilizations. An analysis of the English stage revealed a correspondence to the modern cultures of the English. Modern people find their own reflection in the theatre that may have been staged many years ago. This creates a close relation of theatre, history and the society. The analysis of language and artistic literature must be studied as in their independent objectivity as a reflection of the society. Further, a historical study of the times when the literature was written and the present behaviors is done to establish the connectivity. It is revealed that the physical themes have little effect on believes and moral characterization of the human civilizations. Literature and language is the reflection of the present and the past state of the society. It is also a means of preservation of the civilizations and means of presentation (Shepherd & Wallis, 2004; Marana, 2010; Goucher, LeGuin & Walton, 1998; Aniol, 2012; Showalter, 2010).
Goucher, LeGuin and Walton (1998) observe that technology is the main driver of the modern cultures. This is evident in the innovations that determine the mode of communication, dress code, interaction, and sharing information across cultures that previously were considered as closed systems. In essence, as Marana (2010) added technology has furthered the cause of a globalised culture. Sharing of information and travelling across the world for tourism, job and trade have been the functions of technology. A globalised human race must observe cultural dialogue. Moving across the world an increased knowledge of other cultures leads to new conceptualization of the meaning of culture. The new global culture must be understood in the light of the individual cultural characterizations of communities, nations, and organizations. It is a new world of a whole culture viewed in terms of its components (Shepherd & Wallis, 2004; Marana, 2010; Goucher, LeGuin & Walton, 1998; Aniol, 2012; Showalter, 2010).
Aniol, S. (2012). The historical development of “culture”. Religious affections ministries. Retrieved. 21 May 2014. http://religiousaffections.org/articles/the-historical-development-of-culture/
Aramex. (2014). World history timeline. Time Maps. Retrieved. http://www.timemaps.com/history
Goucher, C., LeGuin, C., & Walton, L. (1998). In the balance: Themes in world history. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Marana, M. (2010). Culture and development. Evolution and prospects. Working papers. No1, UNESCO. Retrieved. http://www.unesco.or.kr/eng/front/programmes/links/6_CultureandDevelopment.pdf
Showalter, E. (2010). Hamlet. Shakespearean Criticism, 59 (1), 1-11.
Shepherd, S., & Wallis, M. (2004). Drama/Theatre/ Performance. New York, NY: Routledge.
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